Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline
Michael F. Holick, Neil C. Binkley, Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari, Catherine M. Gordon, David A. Hanley, Robert P. Heaney, M. Hassan Murad, and Connie M. Weaver
Boston University School of Medicine (M.F.H.), Boston, Massachusetts 02118; University of Wisconsin (N.C.B.), Madison, Wisconsin 53706; University Hospital Zurich (H.A.B.-F.), CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland; Children’s Hospital Boston (C.M.G.), Boston, Massachusetts 02115; University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine (D.A.H.), Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4; Creighton University (R.P.H.), Omaha, Nebraska 68178; Mayo Clinic (M.H.M.), Rochester, Minnesota 55905; and Purdue University (C.M.W.), West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
The objective was to provide guidelines to clinicians for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency with an emphasis on the care of patients who are at risk for deficiency. Participants: The Task Force was composed of a Chair, six additional experts, and a methodologist. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus Process: Consensuswas guidedby systematic reviews of evidence anddiscussions during several conference calls and e-mail communications. The draft prepared by the Task Force was reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society’s Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Core Committee, and cosponsoring associations, and it was posted on The Endocrine Society web site for member review. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes.
ConsideringthatvitaminDdeficiencyisverycommoninallagegroupsandthatfewfoods contain vitamin D, the Task Force recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels, depending on age and clinical circumstances. The Task Force also suggested the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitaminD2 or vitaminD3 was recommended for deficient patients. At the present time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend screening individualswho are not at risk for deficiency or toprescribe vitaminD to attain the noncalcemic benefit for cardiovascular protection. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab96: 0000–0000, 2011)